• Glucose metabolism is primarily regulated by the balance between anabolic (insulin) and catabolic (epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, glucagon, cortisol and growth hormone) hormones;
  • Hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance may have deleterious effects on outcome in critical illness.
  • FFA (free fatty acids) are an important regulator of glucose metabolism;
  • Whole-body protein balance is a dynamic process for equilibrium in healthy adults;
  • Nutritional state and specific tissue balance combine with a number of other factors (including hormones and mediators) to generate a positive or negative protein balance in a number of physiological or pathological situations;
  • Given that each protein in the body has a specific function, proteins cannot be considered as a form of amino acid storage;
  • This is the reason why protein wasting is responsible for morbidity in malnutrition states.